> AIT 연구 > 28개 연구 개요 
28개 연구 개요 및 논평
AIT(Auditory Integration Training: AIT)는 프랑스 외과의사 Guy Berard에 의해 개발되었다. 지금까지 보고된 연구에 의하면 ADHD, 자폐증, 난독증, 특정 주파수에 대한 소리민감성에 효과가 있는 것으로 나타났다.

- AIT의 연구 결과: 장애별 연구 수, 효과유무 -
장애영역긍정적 효과모호/논쟁적/반박적효과불명확한 효과효과없음
자폐증13개2개1개-16개
ADHD4개---4개
CAPD2개-1개-3개
다양한 피험자2개-1개-3개
동물(병아리)2개---2개
23개2개3개-28개


AIT의 생리적, 행동적, 인지적 변화를 평가한 1993년 1월부터 2004년 8월까지의 28개 연구 중에서 23개 연구(82%)는 AIT의 효과를 지지하였고, 3개 연구(11%)는 효과에 관한 증거를 발견하지 못하였고, 2개 연구(7%)는 모호하고 반박적인 결과를 보고했다. 어떤 연구도 완전할 수는 없다. 모든 연구가 다양한 종류의 단점과 결함이 있다. 그러나 긍정적 결과를 나타낸 23개 연구는 부정적 결과를 나타낸 3개 연구들보다 대체로 보다 적고 덜 심한 결함이 있다. 3개 연구는 모두 부정적 결과를 선호하는 편견을 나타냈다. 이상의 연구결과로 볼 때 AIT는 사실상 가치있는 중재로 보인다. 여러 증상에서(자폐스펙트럼장애의 상당수에서) 개선이 있는 유익한 중재로 인정된다.

1. AIT의 긍정적 효과에 관련된 연구들(23개)

1) 자폐증 관련 연구

(1) Creedon, M. P., Edelson, S. M., & Scharre, J. E. (1993). Ocular Movements Among Individuals with Autism Pre- and Post-Auditory Integration Training. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for the Advancement of Behavioral Therapy, New York.
(2) McKee, D.C. & Panksepp, J.(1993). Study of the Effects of AIT in Autism. Paper presented at the Annual NW Ohio Autism Society Conference.
(3, 4) Veale, T.K.(1993). Two Study of the Effects of Auditory Integration Training in Autism.
Paper presented at the International ASA Conference on Autism, Toronto, Canada.

(5) Rimland, B. & Edelson, S. (1994). The Effects of Auditory Integration Training in Autism. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 5. 16-24.
(6) Cimorelli, J. M., Highfill, M, K.(1994, 1995). Positron Emission Tomography Measure of Modified Auditory Integration Therapy: A Case Study Presented at the ASA National Conference, Las Vegas, 1994.
Reported in ADVANCE for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists, June 26, 1995.

(7). Woodward, D. (1994). Changes in Unilateral and Bilateral Sound Sensitivity as a Result of AIT. Sound Connection, 1994, 2, p.4
(8) Monville, D., & Nelson, N.(1994). Parental Perceptions of Change Following AIT for Autism. Presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Conferrence, New Orleans.
(9) Madell, J. R., & Rose, D. E.(1994). Auditory Integration Training. American Journal of Audiology, March, 14-18.
(10) Rimland, B., Edelson, S. M.(1995). Auditory Integration Training: A Pilot Study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 61-70.
(11) Lewine, J. D. Provencal, S. L., Davis, J.T., Orrison, W.W.(1997). Epileptic Activity in Autism and Acquired Aphasia: A Study Using Magnetoencephalography. Paper presented at the Autism Society of America National Conference, Orlando, Florida.
(12) Edelson, S.M., Arin, D., Bauman, M., Lukes, S.E., Rudy, J.H. Scholar, M., & Rimland, B.(1999). Auditory Integration Training : A Double-Blind Study of Behavioral, Electro-Physiological, and Audiometric Effects in Autistic Subjects. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 14, 73-81.
(13) Brown, M.M.(1999). Auditory Integration Training: Two Case Studies. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62, 13-18

2) ADHD 관련 연구

(14) Gerth, J.M., Barton, S.A., Engler, H.F., Heller, A.C., Freides, D., Blalock, J.(1994). Non-Pharmacologcal Techniques in the Treatment of Brain Dysfunction. Georgia Institute of Technology, June,
(15) Geffner, D., Lucker, J.R., Gordon, A., DiStasio(1994). Auditory Processing Skills and Auditory Integration Training in Children with ADD. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American-Speech-Language Hearing Association, New Orleans.
(16) Geffner, D., Lucker, J.R., Gordon, A.(1996). Long-Term Effects of AIT Comparing Treated Non-Treated Children. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American-Speech-Language Hearing Association, Seattle, 1996.
(17) Kirby, W. J.(2000). The Effects of Auditory Integration Training on Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study. University of North Carolina at Asheville
Paper presented at the First Annual Congress of International Association of Berard Practitioners, Antwerp, Belgium, 2000. The Sound Connection, 2000, Vol. 7, pp. 4 &5.


3) 중앙청각 처리장애 관련 연구

(18) Husky, B., Barnett, K., Cimorellim, J.M.(1994). The Effects of Auditory Integration Therapy on Central Auditory Processing. Paper presented at the American Speech-Language Hearing Conferrence, New Orleans, 1994.
(19) Rudy, J. H., Morgan, S. S., and Shepard M. (1994). Clinical Outcome Evaluation: Auditory Integration Training. Upper Valley Medical Centers, Troy, Ohio
Paper presented at the Ohio Speech-Language Hearing Conferrence,1994.


4) 다양한 피험자 관련 연구

(20) Madell, J. R.(1999). Auditory Integration Training: One Clinician's View Language, Speech, and Hearing Service in Schools, 1999, 30, 371-377.
(21) Brockett, S.(2001). A Comparative Study of the Earducator and the AudioKinetron IDEA Training Center, North Haven, Connecticut
The Sound Connection, 2001, 8, 1 &6.


5) 동물 관련 연구

(22) M. Waldhoer, J. Panksepp, D. Pruitt, M. Vaningan, D. McKee, J. Rossi III, and J. Lindsey(1995). An Animal Model of Auditory Integration Training Bowling Green State University &Toxicology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
Paper presented at the Annual Society for Neuroscience Convention, San Diego, 1995.

(23) Panksepp, J., Ross, J., Narayanan, T.K.(1996). Biochemical Changes of As a Result of AIT-type Nodulated and Unmodulated Music. Lost & Found: Perspectives on Brain, Emotion, and Culture, 1966/7, 2권, P. 1과 4.


2. AIT의 비효과적 관련 연구들(3개)


1) 자폐증 관련 연구

(1) Mudford, O.C., Cross, B.A., Breen, S., Cullen, C., Reeves, D., Gould, J., Douglas & J.(2000). Auditory Integration Training for Children with Autism: No Behavioral Effects Detected Keele University, University of Manchester, and UK National Autistic Society
American Journal of Mental Retardation, 2000, 105, 118-129.


2) 중앙청각 처리장애(CAPD) 관련 연구
(2) Yencer, K.A.(1996). The Effects of Auditory Integration Training for Children with Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) State University of New York at Buffalo
Doctoral Dissertation, 1996; American Journal of Audiology, 1998, 7, 32-44.


3) 혼합된 피험자 대상 연구들
(3) Zollweg, W., Vance, V., Palm, D.(1997). A Double-Blind, Placebo, Controlled Study of the Efficacy of Auditory Integration Training. Advance for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists University of Wisconsin at La Crosse; Research Associates, Inc.; and Gundersen Lutheran Hospital
American Journal of Audiology, 1997, 6, 39-47


3. AIT의 모호/논쟁적/반박적 효과 관련 연구들(2개)
(1) Bettison, S. (1996). The Long-Term Effects of Auditory Training on Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disrders 26, 361-374.
(2) Gillberg, C., Johansson, M., Steffenburg, S,. & Berlin, O. (1997): Auditory Integration Training in Children with Autism: Brief Report of an Open Pilot Study Christopher Gillberg, Maria Johansson, Suzanne Steffenberg, and Orjan Berlin Autism, 1997, 1, 97-100


원문개요 보기

Autism Research Institute
4182 Adams Avenue, San Diego, California 92116
The Efficacy of Auditory Integration Training:
Summaries and Critiques of 28 Reports
(January, 1993 - August, 2004)
Stephen M. Edelson, Ph.D. and Bernard Rimland, Ph.D.

Auditory integration training (AIT), as developed by French otolaryngologist Guy Berard and based on the work of his predecessor, Alfred Tomatis, typically consists of 20 half-hour sessions of listening to specially modulated music over a 10- to 20-day period. AIT has been reported to be beneficial in several conditions, including AD/HD, autism, dyslexia, and hypersensitive hearing at certain frequencies.
The present review covers 28 reports on AIT. Twenty-three reports concluded that AIT benefits various population subgroups, three studies claim to show no benefit (or no benefit over that seen in a control group), and two studies reported rather ambiguous or contradictory results. Considering the great difficulties in both providing a credible placebo treatment and assessing improvement in the subject populations, these results are quite encouraging. The balance of the evidence clearly favors AIT as a useful intervention, especially in autism.
Following are summaries of all research studies known to us that have investigated the efficacy of AIT. These studies were published between January, 1993 and May, 2001 and have appeared in peer-reviewed journals, professional newsletters, and/or were presented at professional conferences. Twenty-six of the studies utilized subjects with autism, attention deficit/hyper-activity disorder, central auditory processing disorder, and/or mental retardation. Two of the studies evaluated the physiological effects of AIT on animals.
Section A of the paper summarizes those studies supporting the efficacy of AIT; Section B summaries those studies that claim to have found no support for its efficacy; and Section C summarizes the results of two studies which we have classified ‘ambiguous, contradictory, or controversial.’ Following these three sections, Section D, we discuss two additional reports in a Discussion section, followed by our Conclusions.
The summaries are listed chronologically within each disorder. All used Berard-type equipment and procedures. (We are not aware of any relevant research using the Tomatis approach during the time period covered.)
The following abbreviations are used for the tests/checklists utilized most often in the studies: Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-1), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC-2), Behavior Summarized Evaluation (BSE), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals--Revised (CELF-R), Conner’s Parent Rating Scales (CPRS), Fisher’s Auditory Problems Checklist (FAPC), Screening Test for Auditory Processing Disorders (SCAN), Self-Injurious Behavior Questionnaire (SIBQ), Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW), and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI).

Section A : Studies Reporting Positive Effects of AIT (N=23)
AUTISM STUDIES
Margaret P. Creedon in collaboration with Stephen M. Edelson and Janice E. Scharre
Easter Seals Therapeutic Day School, Autism Research Institute, and Illinois College of Optometry
Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for the Advancement of Behavioral Therapy, New York, 1993.

In an open-clinical study, visual tracking movements and optokinetic nystagmus (a visual reflex) were assessed in 22 autistic individuals, ages 6 to 13 years, prior to, immediately following, and three months after AIT. Significant improvements were seen in horizontal tracking immediately following AIT and in both horizontal and vertical tracking three months post AIT. No changes were seen in optokinetic nystagmus. Parents completed the FAPC and the ABC-1. The FAPC indicated significant improvement at 3 months post-AIT, and the ABC-1 indicated significant improvement both immediately following and 3 months post-AIT.
  Comment. This was an open-clinical study with no control group for comparison.


Dawn Cortez-McKee and Jaak Panksepp
Bowling Green State University, Ohio
Paper presented at the Annual NW Ohio Autism Society Conference, 1993.

This open-trial clinical study utilized 33 autistic individuals. Participants were assessed using multiple measures prior to (two baseline measures), and at 1-week, 1-month, and 3 months following AIT. The measures included: ABC-1, BSE, CARS, CPRS, FAPC, and SIBQ. Significant improvement was seen on all of the measures, except the FAPC, at the one- and three-month follow-up assessment periods.
  Comment. This study was also an open-clinical trial with no control group for comparison.


(3 & 4) Two Studies of the Effects of Auditory Integration Training in Autism
Tina K. Veale
Comprehensive Concepts in Speech and Hearing, Cincinnati, Ohio
Paper Presented at the International ASA Conference on Autism, Toronto, Canada, 1993.

Study I. In a double-blind placebo pilot study, five autistic subjects participated in the experimental group and five in the control group. Parents completed three different evaluation forms--the ABC-1, the CPRC, and the FAPC. These instruments were completed prior to, one month following, and three months following AIT. There were no initial differences between the experimental and control groups, but positive trends indicating improvement in the experimental group were seen at three months following AIT for all three evaluation forms.
Study II. This was an open clinical study involving 46 autistic participants. Parents completed the ABC-1, CPRS, FAPC as well as the Autistic Behavior Composite Checklist and Profile. Significant improvements were observed at one month and six months following AIT. Some of the behavioral changes included: reductions in hyperactivity, social withdrawal, auditory problems, restlessness, and anxiety.
  Comment. Study I included a control-placebo group, but there were only five subjects in each group. Given this small number, it is not surprising that, despite the benefits seen, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Study II which did find significant pre- and post-treatment differences was an open-clinical trial and did not include a placebo-group.


(5) The Effects of Auditory Integration Training in Autism
Bernard Rimland and Stephen M. Edelson
Autism Research Institute, San Diego, California
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 1994, 5, 16-24.

This study involved an open-clinical research design which included several experimental control measures. There were 445 autistic subjects in the study, with ages ranging from 4 to 41 years. A significant reduction in sound sensitivity was found, based on the presentation of pure tones prior to and immediately following the AIT sessions. Analyses of the hearing tests conducted prior to, after 5 hours of listening, and after 10 hours of listening, showed hearing acuity to have improved slightly while the amount of variability within the audiogram decreased. Subjects were also assigned at random to one of several filtering conditions (e.g., filter auditory peaks, no filters, filter painful frequencies). No differences in the efficacy of the AIT were found among the filtering conditions.
Parents completed several different questionnaires on a monthly basis for 9 months. These included the ABC-1, CPRS, and the FAPC. The responses to these behavioral measures indicated a sharp reduction in problem behaviors, starting one month following the AIT listening sessions. These changes remained stable throughout the entire 9 months of post-AIT evaluations.
Participants were assigned at random to one of three different AIT devices. No differences were found in the efficacy of the devices.
Correlational analyses were employed to attempt to develop a profile of those individuals who may benefit from AIT. Lower functioning individuals displayed significantly greater improvement, as indicated by the ABC-1 and the CPRS.
No significant relationships were found between behavioral improvement and age, degree of sound sensitivity, and the amount of variability in the pre-AIT audiogram.
  Comment. Although a placebo group was not employed in this research project, the study did include several experimental controls, such as videotape raters who were ‘blind’ to before/after conditions, and random assignment to filter conditions and to AIT devices.


(6) Positron Emission Tomography Measure of Modified Auditory Integration Therapy: A Case Study

Jacqueline M. Cimorelli and Melanie K. Highfill
University of North Carolina at Greensboro &Center for the Dev. of Comm. and Learning, Winston-Salem, NC
Presented at the ASA National Conference, Las Vegas, 1994.
Reported in ADVANCE for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists, June 26, 1995.

A single-subject research design investigated changes in brain functioning following AIT using Positron Emissions Test (PET) Scan technology. The research subject was an 8-year old male with mental retardation and autism. PET scans were conducted prior to a second set of AIT listening sessions (baseline), one day after the listening sessions, and six months later. The results at both the one-day and six-month follow-up evaluations indicated a normalization of brain wave activity, including a decrease in hyper-metabolism in the frontal lobe and an increase in activity in the occipital lobe.
  Comment. Although these results are encouraging, this study involved only one subject; and there was no control subject for comparison. Additionally, a PET scan had not been given prior to the first set of AIT sessions; thus, the baseline information used in the research study may not be an appropriate measure for comparison.


(7) Changes in Unilateral and Bilateral Sound Sensitivity as a Result of AIT

Deborah Woodward
Woodward Audiology, McLeansville, NC
The Sound Connection, 1994, 2, p.4.

Loudness tolerance was investigated in 60 children with autism and related disorders. Uncomfortable loudness level (UCL) measurements were performed prior to and immediately following AIT. Prior to AIT, the results from the left and right monaural presentations (to each ear independently) as well as the binaural presentation (to both ears simultaneously) were much lower than 90 dBHTL, where 90 dBHTL is considered a normal lower limit of UCL. Furthermore, the binaural tolerance to the speech noise was 9 to 11 dBHTL less than the monaural tolerance level, where 3 to 6 dBHTL is considered normal. Following AIT, the monaural tolerance level to each ear increased 13 to 15 dBHTL, but overall, the monaural and binaural tolerance levels were lower than normal. This increased tolerance to speech noise was statistically significant. In addition, the binaural tolerance level was only 5 dBHTL lower than the monaural sound presentations, indicating a more normal response.
  Comment. This study involved a relatively large number of subjects; however, the study did not employ a control group.


(8) Parental Perceptions of Change Following AIT for Autism

Dana Monville and Nickola Nelson
Western Michigan University
Paper presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Conference, New Orleans, 1994.

A survey was mailed to 150 parents of children diagnosed with either autism or pervasive developmental disorder whose children had received AIT between 1991 and 1993. Forty parents (27%) responded to the survey. Of those who responded, 25 (63%) reported an increase in attention span; 25 (63%) reported a decrease in sound sensitivity; and 12 (30%) reported an increase in language. Four parents (10%) reported an increase in tantrums and aggression.
  Comment. Although the survey was sent to 150 families, only 27% responded to the survey. It is possible that those who observed positive changes in their children were more likely to complete the survey than those who did not observe any changes.


(9) Auditory Integration Training

Jane R. Madell and Darrell E. Rose
Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, NY; and Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL
American Journal of Audiology, March, 1994, 14-18.

This study involved an open clinical trial of AIT on four children. Their diagnoses included: autism, PDD, and learning disabilities. Audiograms of all four children showed improvement following AIT (i.e., a decrease in variability). Behavioral improvement was observed in three of the four children. The benefits reported were: increased calmness, decreased sound sensitivity, and improvements in speech/language and word recognition in noise.
  Comment. Although this report included a great deal of clinical detail, only four subjects participated in the study; and there was no control group.


(10) Auditory Integration Training: A Pilot Study

Bernard Rimland and Stephen M. Edelson
Autism Research Institute, San Diego, California
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1995, 25, 61-70.

The study utilized a blind-placebo controlled experimental design. Eight subjects were assigned at random to the experimental (AIT) group, and 9 were assigned to the placebo group. The placebo group listened to the same, but unprocessed, music. Three months following AIT, significant improvements were observed on the ABC-1 and the FAPC. Although there were no changes in sound sensitivity nor changes in the audiogram, the majority of subjects had not been reported to be sound sensitive, nor were they able to be tested audiometrically.
  Comment. Although the subjects were assigned at random to the AIT and placebo groups, there were initial differences between the two groups. Regression analysis suggested the effects observed were not artifacts of the initial differences.


(11) Epileptic Activity in Autism and Acquired Aphasia: A Study Using Magneto-Encephalography

Jeffrey D. Lewine, Sherri L. Provencal, John T. Davis, and William W. Orrison, Jr.
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Utah Medical School
Paper presented at the Autism Society of America National Conference, Orlando, Florida, 1997

Magnetoencephalography and EEG recordings were used to measure electrical activity in the brain in one child with dyslexia and one high-functioning autistic adult. Baseline recordings demonstrated larger than normal responses in the areas associated with hyperacusis. Following AIT, a more normalized balance or symmetry in electrical activity was observed.
  Comment. These findings document physiological changes due to AIT; however, there were only two subjects in the study and no control group.


(12) Auditory Integration Training: A Double-Blind Study of Behavioral, Electro-physiological, and Audiometric Effects in Autistic Subjects

Stephen M. Edelson, Deborah Arin, Margaret Bauman, Scott E. Lukas, Jane H. Rudy, Michelle Sholar, and Bernard Rimland
Autism Research Institute, San Diego, CA; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA; McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA; and Upper Valley Medical Centers, Troy, OH
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 1999, 14, 73-81.

Nineteen autistic subjects were assigned at random to either the experimental group (n=9), which listened to AIT-processed music, or a placebo group (n=10), which listened to the same, but unprocessed, music. All evaluations were ‘blind’ to group assignment. Behavioral, electro-physiological, and audiometric measures were assessed prior to and following AIT. Behavioral: A significant improvement was observed in behavioral problems (using the ABC-1) in the experimental group at the 3-month follow-up assessment. Electrophysiological: Of the 19 subjects, three experimental group and two placebo group subjects were able to cooperate with the auditory P300 Event Related Potential (ERP) task. All five subjects showed abnormal P300 ERPs prior to the AIT listening sessions. Three months following AIT, all three subjects showed a dramatic improvement in their auditory P300 ERP. No improvement was seen in the placebo group. Audiometric: The subjects' poor communication and attention skills precluded formal statistical evaluation of the data from a battery of audiometric tests; however, an audiologist was able to assign correctly 10 of the 15 subjects for whom partial data were available to the treated and non-treated groups, on a ‘blind’ basis.
  Comment. AIT was reported to produce both behavioral improvement and normalization of brain wave activity. The behavioral changes on the ABC-1 are consistent with those obtained in a previous study (Rimland &Edelson, 1995, Section A, #10). Although the electrophysiological findings are encouraging, they are based on a total of only five subjects.


(13) Auditory Integration Training and Autism: Two Case Studies

Mark Morgan Brown
Private Practitioner, Republic of Ireland
British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 1999, 62, 13-18.

This is a clinical study of two autistic siblings, a 5-year old male and a 3 1/2-year old female. Observations were made at three and six months following AIT. Improvements were reported in attention, arousal and sensory modulation, balance and movement perception, praxis and sequencing, speech and language, social and emotional maturity, and eye control.
  Comment. Although this study provided detailed descriptions of subjects prior to and after AIT, it involved only two subjects and no control group for comparison.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Reports


(14) Non-Pharmacological Techniques in the Treatment of Brain Dysfunction

Jeffrey M. Gerth, Steve A. Barton, Harold F. Engler, Alyne C. Heller, David Freides, and Jane Blalock
Georgia Institute of Technology, Emory University, and the Atlanta Speech School
Technical Report prepared for the GTRI Fellows Council, Georgie Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology, June, 1994.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of AIT on 10 children with auditory-based learning deficits. Eight of the ten had also been diagnosed as having Attention Deficit Disorder. Subjects were given a series of diagnostic tests, and parents were requested to complete several questionnaires. Two subscales from the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery test were used to evaluate changes in auditory processing. These subscales, the Sound Blending scale and the Incomplete Words scale, indicated an improvement of one standard deviation or more in 4 of the 10 subjects, and moderate improvement in two other subjects. Performance on other criteria (e.g., CPRS and the FAPC) “could not be meaningfully evaluated, given the amount of missing data.”
  Comment. Although improvement was reported in 6 of the 10 subjects, there was no control group.


(15) Auditory Processing Skills and Auditory Integration Training in Children with ADD

Donna Geffner, Jay R. Lucker, Ann Gordon and Dolores A. DiStasio
St. John's University, Jamaica, NY and Ann Gordon Associates, Stony Brook, NY
Paper Presented at the Annual Convention of the American-Speech-Language Hearing Association, New Orleans, 1994

This study investigated changes in audition and language in 16 children with AD/HD. A large number of tests were employed to evaluate possible changes as a result of AIT. The measures included: standard audiometric threshold testing, tolerance for tones and speech, speech recognition in quiet and noise conditions, and the Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock (GFW) Test of Auditory Selective Attention. Post-assessments were conducted within 3 months following AIT. Significant improvement was observed in the subjects' tolerance to tones and speech, speech recognition in the noise condition, and in listening skills as measured by the GFW Auditory Selective Attention Test and several subscales from the Detroit Test of Learning Aptitude (oral commissions, attention span for unrelated words, and attention span for related words).
  Comment. No control group was utilized in this study.


(16) Long-Term Effects of AIT Comparing Treated and Non-Treated Children

Donna Geffner, Jay R. Lucker, and Ann Gordon
St. John's University, Jamaica, NY; and Ann Gordon Associates, Commack, NY
Paper Presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Seattle, 1996.

The study involved a one-year follow-up evaluation of children with Attention Deficit Disorder. Those receiving AIT (n=10) were compared to a control group (n=10) which did not receive AIT. Using a tolerance testing procedure for 'uncomfortable' listening levels, improvement of 6 dB in the left ear was observed for the AIT group, but no change was observed in those in the control group. No differences were found between the two groups with respect to listening to 'comfortable' speech. Additionally, tests evaluating speech recognition in noise and auditory-language processing showed improvement for those in the AIT group but not for those in the control group.
  Comment. Although a control group was used in this study, those in the control group did not receive a placebo treatment that would have controlled for the possibility of a ‘placebo effect.’


(17) The Effects of Auditory Integration Training on Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study

Wayne J. Kirby
University of North Carolina at Asheville
Paper presented at the First Annual Congress of International Association of Berard Practitioners, Antwerp, Belgium, 2000.
The Sound Connection, 2000, Vol. 7, pp. 4 & 5.

This study employed a placebo-control design in which five children listened to AIT-processed music and five children listened to the same, but unprocessed, music. Subjects were assessed using the Auditory Continuous Performance Test (ACPT) prior to and three months following the experimental/placebo listening sessions. The ACPT provides measures for impulsivity and inattention and also includes a 'total number of errors' score. Comparison of the two groups at three months post-AIT indicated a statistically significant reduction in the total number of errors for those in the AIT group. Improvement was also observed on the impulsivity and inattention scores for the AIT group, but these results were not significantly different from the results obtained from the placebo group.
  Comment. Although a placebo group was utilized in this study, there were only five subjects in each group.
Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) Reports


(18) The Effects of Auditory Integration Therapy on Central Auditory Processing
Brenda Huskey, Kathryn Barnett, and Jacqueline M. Cimorelli
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Paper presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Conference, New Orleans, 1994.

In an experimental study, two auditory processing tasks were administered to six subjects in the AIT treatment group and six subjects in a control group. These tasks included the SSW test and the Phonemic Synthesis Test (PST). Pre- and post-tests were given prior to, and at 4 to 6 weeks, and at 8 to 12 weeks following AIT. For the SSW test, there were no improvements in the subjects 4 to 6 weeks following AIT, but there were improvements on the total score and on the left competing condition at 8 to 12 weeks following AIT. There were no changes in the results from the PST.
  Comment. Although a control group was employed, there were only six subjects in each group. Additionally, the control group did not receive a placebo treatment to permit evaluation of the possibility of a ‘placebo-effect.’


(19) Clinical Outcome Evaluation: Auditory Integration Training
Jane H. Rudy, Sharon S. Morgan, and Marianne Shepard
Upper Valley Medical Centers, Troy, Ohio
Paper presented at the Ohio Speech-Language-Hearing Conference, 1994.

In an open-clinical study, 13 subjects diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or central auditory processing dysfunction (CAPD) were given a variety of assessments prior to, immediately following, and three months post-AIT. These tests examined hearing acuity, central auditory processing (SSW, SCAN), auditory evoked potentials (i.e., brain waveforms--P200 and P300), language function (CELF-R), and intelligence (TONI). Immediately following AIT, there were significant improvements in the SSW, SCAN, and CELF-R, and no change in the TONI. Three-months post-AIT, there was additional improvements in the SSW and CELF-R, but no further change in the SCAN. There was also a significant improvement in the TONI. An analysis of the P200 waveform indicated a significant change in amplitude but no change in the P300 waveform latency. No significant changes in hearing acuity were detected during any of the assessments.
  Comment. This was an open-clinical study, and there was no control group.
Studies Investigating Mixed Populations


(20) Auditory Integration Training: One Clinician's View
Jane R. Madell
Long Island College Hospital and State University of New York, Brooklyn
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 1999, 30, 371-377.

Changes in speech perception were evaluated in several disorders prior to and following AIT. The populations included: autism, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), multisystem developmental disorder (n=46), attention deficit disorder or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n=26), and central auditory processing disorder with leaning disabilities (CAPD/LD, n=46). Subjects' speech perception was assessed by asking them to recognize words in both quiet and competing noise environments. Improvement in speech perception was documented in both the quiet and noise conditions following AIT. In a second part of this study, uncomfortable loudness thresholds (UCLS) were evaluated in individuals diagnosed with autism (n=24), PDD (n=26), and CAPD (n=10). UCLs also improved in these children following AIT.
  Comment. This is an excellent clinical study with many subjects and multiple measures of change. However, a control group was not used for comparison.


(21) A Comparative Study of the Earducator and the AudioKinetron
Sally Brockett
IDEA Training Center, North Haven, Connecticut
The Sound Connection, 2001, 8, 1 & 6.

This study compared the effects of two Berard AIT devices--the Earducator and the AudioKinetron. A total of 19 children diagnosed with autism, learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder participated in this study. The children were assigned at random to either the Earducator or the AudioKinetron; and the evaluators, the parents, were ‘blind’ to group assignment. The ABC-1 and the Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale were used to assess changes. The results showed improvement in both groups of children and no differences between the two AIT devices.
  Comment. Although the aim of this study was to compare two Berard AIT devices, a placebo group would have also provided additional information regarding the effectiveness of the two AIT devices.
Reports of Animal Studies


(22) An Animal Model of Auditory Integration Training
M. Waldhoer, J. Panksepp, D. Pruitt, M. Vaningan, D. McKee, J. Rossi III, and J. Lindsey
Bowling Green State University &Toxicology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
Paper presented at the Annual Society for Neuroscience Convention, San Diego, 1995.

This study was undertaken to follow up the positive findings seen in an earlier study on autistic children conducted by these authors (see Section A, #2). AIT was administered to newborn domestic chicks, selected as the species of choice because of their responsivity to sounds. Starting at two days of age, subjects were included in one of three groups--AIT (experimental), music (control 1, same music as the AIT group but not processed), and silence (control 2). Following AIT, those in the experimental group exhibited an increase in growth and a reduced inhibition to separation-induced vocalizations in response to music. Post-mortem analysis of the brain tissue indicated a reduction in serotonin and 5-HIAA levels in the two music groups (experimental and control 1). In addition, an analysis of the behavioral effect of cyproheptadine, a general serotonin antagonist, yielded comparable behavioral effects. The data suggest that AIT may modify serotonergic tone in the brain.
  Comment. Although behavior changes were observed in chicks who received AIT, neurochemical changes were found both in the AIT and placebo-music groups (control 1).


 

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